biochemistry and biology

 Essay about chemistry

п»їCELL STRUCTURE

CELL THEORY:

Strength and useful unit of all living things

New cells happen from old cells

Skin cells contain details that advices growth. This info can be passed onto new cells.

MICROSCOPES:

There are two main types of microscopes: Light and Electron

Electron Micrographs- proven in color

LIGHT

ELECTRON

Uses beam of light

Magnification sama dengan x1500

Resolution = two hundred nm

пЃЉ Wide range of individuals can be used

пЃЉ Samples will be fairly speedy + simple to prepare

пЃЉ Cheaper and safer

пЃЊ Limited resolution

пЃЊ Limited magnification

Indication Electron Microscopic lense (TEM)

Scanning services Electron Microscopic lense (SEM)

Uses electromagnets to concentrate beam of electrons

Denser parts of specimen absorb more electrons creating contrast Can simply be used about thin individuals

Produces SECOND image

Zoom = x500, 000

Quality = 0. 2 nm

Scan column of electrons across example of beauty

Beam bounces off surface of example of beauty

Produces 3D image

Magnifying = x100, 000

Quality = five nm (lower)

Advantages

Drawbacks

пЃЉ Will produce coloured photos

пЃЉ Better resolution

пЃЉ Better zoom

пЃЊ Must be used in a cleaner (no air)- electrons happen to be absorbed by molecules in air пЃЊ Expensive

пЃЊ Training is necessary

пЃЊ Normal colours can't be seen

пЃЊ Dangerous- gets rid of living skin cells

STAINING:

Used to have better visualisation of cells under a microscope Used since some cell components happen to be transparent

ACETIC ORCEIN- stains DNA dark red

GENETIAN VIOLET- stains microbe cell walls

IODINE- unsightly stains starch granules

METHYLENE BLUE/EOSIN- used for mild microscope

Specimen dipped in MATERIAL like lead (metal ions scatter electrons to contrast)- used for electron microscope

SECTIONING:

Sections of cells need to be cut into thin slices

Enables beam of light to pass through section of tissues

Specimens will be embedded in wax

Helps to ensure profound results to identify muscle

CELL ORGANELLES:

ORGANELLE

STRUCTURE

FUNCTION

Center

Major organelle with:

Chromatin

Elemental envelope (double membrane)

Nuclear pore (holes)

Nucleolus

Chromatin made from protein and GENETICS

Controls cellular activities

Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes

Start technique of cell split

Cell Wall structure

Manufactured from cellulose

Rigid, protective obstacle

Supports cell

Protects against mechanical harm

Cell Surface Membrane

Made of lipids and proteins

Controls movement of substances in and out of skin cells

Has radio molecules which allows it to reply to chemicals (hormones) independent cell material from outside of the cell

independent cell components from the cytoplasm

In cellular recognition and signalling

To keep some components of metabolic path ways in place

In regulating the transport of materials out and in of cells Cytoplasm

Jelly-like compound

Eukaryotic cells= contains organelles

Prokaryotic cells= contains digestive enzymes needed for metabolic reactions. Mitochondrion

Double membrane

Cristae (folded)

Matrix (central part)

ATP created during cardiovascular respiration

ATP is common carrier energy

Ribosome

Consist of two subunits (large and small)

Found in cytoplasm

Attached to Hard ER

Proteins synthesis occur

Coded data (mRNA) is employed to assemble necessary protein from amino acid Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Cisternae (flattened membrane sure sacs)

Rough- ribosomes present on exterior surfaces of membranes

Smooth- lacks ribosomes on their surface

Studded with ribosomes

Folds and processes protein made in ribosome

Gives pathway to get transport of materials through cell (proteins) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Synthesis and processes lipids

Synthesis, retailers and carries carbohydrates

Golgi Apparatus

Stack of membrane destined sacs

Will get and modifies proteins from ER

Deals modified necessary protein into vesicles to be carried

Makes lysosomes

Produces secretory enzymes

Vesicle

Little fluid longchamp in cytoplasm with membrane layer

Transports chemicals in and out cellular

Formed at Golgi...

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